Appendix 3: Table 1. Recommended adaptation actions for conservation and management.
|Climate change projection||Regional or Sub-regional impacts, by sector||Suggested Adaptation Actions|
|Warming ocean temperatures||Fisheries: Shifting species ranges||Consider adaptive or dynamic ocean management [161,162] Fisheries: Adapt fisheries allocations after species abundance/distributions have changed  Adjust fishing practices or gears to new species or changing fishery openings |
|Ocean acidification||Aquaculture: Declining productivity, larval survival, and reproductive capacity of calciferous organisms||Consider land-based saltwater flow-through aquaculture systems as an alternative to at-sea net pen aquaculture systems|
|Sea level rise||Ecosystems: Intensifying storms and warming oceans will affect coastal regions through erosion and degradation of shorelines and wetlands||Marine reserves: Nearshore habitat protection can reduce loss and damage, and promote intact habitats that offer natural coastal defense, ultimately supporting human livelihoods and ecological recovery |
|Wind, waves, and storm events||Higher coastal erosion and flooding||Apply a precautionary approach: Use extreme recurrences for both winds and water levels in setting scenarios for mitigation and adaptation. Research gaps: Impacts of storm surges, especially on low lying regions. More modeling is needed to improve projections of storm events and impacts including changes in frequency, intensity, and direction of future extreme events.|